Category Archives: Education

Toys for Children: Everything You Need to Know Before Buying Online

Children love to play; and toys make playtime fun and engaging. Experts in child development say that toys promote positive learning even as they entertain. Therefore, toys can be learning aids that boost various skills in your child. Having said this, not choosing the right toys for your child is detrimental. In fact, you must always consider age-appropriate toys and games when buying. How do you know which toy is best for your child? The guide below sheds more light.

Major toy categories available in the market

Vehicles

Auto-themed toys are some of the most popular. Children are able to play with all manner of miniature vehicles including buses, cars, trucks and more. Consider this, every second, up to 8 Hot Wheels are sold. This is a toy vehicle brand.

Puzzles

There are simple and complex puzzles that suit various ages. These toys are known to trigger creativity and boost critical thinking. Rubik’s Cube is one of the most popular puzzles which was created by a Hungarian toy maker. Today, puzzles have gone to another level.

Dolls

These are some of the oldest toys. They are greatly loved by girls because they are made to resemble miniature babies. Plastic and cloth are the main materials used to create dolls. They are not only used by children; there are people who collect them as keepsakes or to decorate their spaces. Some people attach spiritual meaning to dolls.

Construction sets

These are standalone pieces that can be joined together to form a distinct model. These models could be cars, houses and even spaceships. These toys are great for children who like to be challenged. They are interactive and spark imagination. There are adults who also enjoy using these sets for fun.

Digital toys

These are some of the most common toys today. This is because they are fitted with digital technology. They are highly interactive keeping children on their toes. They incorporate virtual elements in which children can learn and access unique entertainment.

Toys that promote physical activity

The most traditional toys in this category include balls, jump ropes, hoops, tops, frisbee, foot bags and many others. These toys make physical activity possible. Tricycles and bikes for children will also promote activity; making them great elements for play.

Ideal toys for various ages

0 to 12 months

A newborn baby is just happy observing their new surroundings. However, when they hit three months, they will be keen on touching various items. Toys at this age will most likely end up in the mouth. In this respect, you must maintain top hygiene with toys. They love colored and textured toys that seem amusing. In addition, they adore toys that produce various sounds like crinkling and squeaking sounds. These are the best options for this age group.

– Rattles

– Crib mobiles that come in bright colors

– Small dolls or stuffed animals that are fluffy

– Floor gyms

– Fabric balls that are small

– Unbreakable mirrors

– Activity boards

1 to 2 years

This is a very curious age. Because of their improved motor skills, your child will want something more responsive. They can start to interact with toys such as the ones mentioned below;

– Bath-time toys like rubber ducks and boats

– Stacking rings

– Nesting cups and boxes

– Toys that can be pushed or pulled

– Musical toys such as drums, pianos and tambourines

– Vehicles such as colored buses together with mini figures of humans

2 to 3 years

This is a great age to introduce purposeful toys. Your child will want something that they can fully explore. They like phones and gadgets that fully interact. Toys that engage their whole boy are exciting and below is a list;

– Tricycles and other ride on toys

– Toy mobile phones and play kitchen sets

– Flashy musical instruments

– Bigger dolls and stuffed animals

– Puzzles and construction toys

4 to 5 years

This is a relatively mature age where there is need for more challenging toys. It is an ideal time to have educational toys that stimulate their minds even more. The best options include;

– All manner of balls soccer, basketball

– Bicycles with training wheels

– More complex puzzles

– Action figures

– Barbie dolls

– Art and crafts kits

– Electronic toys and touch-pads

– Costumes to dress up

– Board games

The benefits of buying kid’s toys online

A wide variety of toys

Buying online will give you access to a wide array of toys for your children. You local physical store may not even have the capacity to store the various options available online. This way, you can easily get the ideal toys for your children. From dolls to stuffed animals and musical instruments; you are spoiled for choice.

It is highly convenient

Buying toys online is certainly convenient. With just a click of a button, you will have the right product delivered to you. For busy parents and guardians who do not have time, this is a great method of killing two birds with a single throw.

You access cheaper toys

Buying online will save you money. This is because you can select the best prices that will suit your budget. Also, you can compare the prices from various online sellers to land on the best deal. Online, you can also buy directly from manufacturers; which will naturally save you money.

You get high quality toys

Because you can read user reviews and product specifications, you will be in a position to choose toys that are of high quality. Knowing the various toy components and materials used therein will help you make a decision on preferred quality.

You can buy toys from overseas

If you like a certain toy type from a specific country, buying online will break the physical boundaries. This way, your child can enjoy the most suitable toy sourced from virtually anywhere in the world.

Top tips for buying children’s toys online

Buy toys appropriate for your child’s age

This is the most important buying consideration. This is because you want to stimulate and entertain your child in the most effective way. Toys that are not suitable in terms of age can even be dangerous for your child. Therefore, take time when searching online and filter the age you wish to buy for.

Be extra careful on the toy size

Sometimes, it can be hard to determine the actual size of a toy online. It is imperative to request this information from your online seller if it is not provided. Buy sizes that are first and foremost safe. Secondly, buy sizes that you feel give you value for money. For example, if you are buying a stuffed animal, confirm that it is larger than your fist; making assumptions may lead to disappointment.

Consider the battery needs

Many electronic toys will be powered by batteries. In many instances, you will have to buy these batteries separately. To this end, consider your budget needs. Also, know where to buy compatible batteries for the toys. Buying batteries in bulk is the best way to keep your child happy. Otherwise, you will have to contend with the hassle of buying single units.

Know the shipping details

From the return policies to the shipping fees and shipping time, get informed accordingly. Your online retailer should charge a reasonable fee for shipping. If the toy is broken or is not what you were looking for, you should return it within a short window. The shipping duration will give you an idea as to when you will receive the package.

Read online user reviews

See what others have to say about the toy. Were many users thrilled or was the toy a huge disappointment? Evade common pitfalls by getting first hand information from real customers. This is one of the merits of buying toys online; you get feedback that is eye-opening.

Did you know this about toys?

– Toys are some of the biggest export items by China. In fact, they manufacture up to 70% of all toys in the world.

– The largest toy market globally is America at 41% followed by Europe at 29%, Asia and Oceania represent 30% of the total toy market while Africa is far behind with a share of only 1%.

– Mr. Potato Head is the first ever toy to be advertised on television and the oldest toy in history is a stick.

– Did you know that Lego was not the original name? The first and original name was Automatic Binding Bricks.

– In 2012, a toy made its way to the International Space Station, courtesy of an American astronaut. This toy was the Red Bird of Angry Birds.

Children and Their Changing Roles Throughout History

Children in today’s society seem to be much more pampered and less responsible than they were a few decades ago. They also seemed to have lost much of the value system that most of us took for granted growing up. By examining the roles of children in the past, we may be able to trace the source of the problems that we are having with today’s troubled youth.

In olden days, children were treated as small adults and given many of the same responsibilities that were shouldered by their parents. Youngsters worked side by side with their parents in the fields as soon as they could walk. Children serving as soldiers were not uncommon in some countries. Marriages took place when a person was approximately twelve years of age in the hopes that they could reproduce in the few years that they had to live. Young people in these times were exposed to the harsh realities of life virtually from birth.

Death was also an every day event when the average life span was approximately forty years of age. Only one in five children survived to adulthood, so the loss of siblings was a common occurrence as well. Many parents did not live to see their children grow up due to the loss of life in battle and childbed, and many children were raised by adults that had little or no blood connection to them.

All of these factors prohibited most children from being pampered or spoiled. The daily struggle to survive curtailed any frivolity. This is not to say that these parents did not value or care about their children. Any child that survived infancy was considered to be a great asset and human nature dictated that these children may have been cherished dearly.

Discipline was also much more vigorous than it is today. Due to the dangers that were present in the settings of old, disobeying a parent’s rule could commonly lead to death. As a way to protect these youngsters, many parents physically beat them to ensure that the rules were obeyed.

In the modern world, daily survival is not the struggle it once was. Parents have become more lenient and loving than their predecessors would have dreamed of being. Every child enjoys playing with toys and receiving a quality education. Many experts stress that parents should allow their children to thoroughly enjoy their childhood as a vital step to them becoming healthy and happy adults.

Due to this attitude of child rearing, several problems have developed. Some young people today seem to have no respect for anything, and many are ending up in jail before their eighteenth birthday. Drug and alcohol abuse is running rampant. As adults, many of these children find that they are unable to cope with “real” life.

As a parent, there are several ways that you can help your child to grow into a successful adult. The main thing to remember is that every child needs rules, and penalties should be handed out if these guidelines are not obeyed. This does not mean that you should physically punish your child by any means. You can decide on an appropriate punishment, but punishment should be given. If you establish a set of rules and do not follow through with them, you could be sending your child the message that rules are not important.

You may also want to give your child some responsibilities around the house. This is a good way to teach your child many of the housekeeping skills that they will need as adults. Teaching your child to respect themselves and others as well as good manners is key to their continued social success.

As a parent, it is your job as well as your privilege to teach your child everything that they will need to know as they grow. Having a good parenting plan can prevent your child from ending up in situations that both you and he will regret later.

Nature Vs Nurture – A Sociological Approach to Feral, Isolated, and Institutionalized Children

A common question related to sociology deals with the nature of the human being versus the way it is raised. Does one know if he is a boy or a girl upon birth, or does he make this distinction based on the actions and words of those around him? How does prison affect the functionality of a person once he is released to the world? These questions are strongly related to the nature versus nurture – does a human enter the world with basic human function, or does he develop these functions as a result of those around him.

One topic sociologists may study is feral children. These are children that were deserted at a very young age, with death usually the intention of the parents, but were rather raised and groomed by animals. Sociologists found that children raised by animals acquired the instincts and behaviors of the species that raised them. One example of this occurred in the 1700s, when a feral child known as “the wild boy of Aveyron” was discovered by scientists of the day. He was found in France in 1798, and it was observed that he walked on all fours, did not indicate pain related to cold temperatures, and pounced on small animals – devouring them raw in ravenous fashion. Although most sociologists will discard the significance of feral children because of the sparseness of cases, it still teaches us a lesson that children must learn how to act at a young age. This essential time of youth is when children develop many essential social behaviors.

A slightly more common study is on isolated children. These are children that were raised by one person or a small group of persons in an isolated area with minimal or no contact to a typical society. One girl, Isabelle, was raised by her deaf, mute mother in the attic of her grandfather. Upon being discovered at the age of 6, it was found that she could not talk, and rather relied on gestures to communicate with her mother. She also had a disease called rickets as a result of an inadequate diet and a lack of sunshine. This basically made her legs useless. Her behavior towards strangers, men especially, was like a wild animal. She treated them with fear and hostility – and could only make noise in the way of strange croaks. Initially she scored nearly zero on an IQ test – but because Isabelle was discovered at such a young age, she was able to reach the learning level expected from her age in two years. It is possible that results of isolation can be reversed if the child is younger than twelve. The primary problem, however, was a lack of a language, which is basic to all human interaction. All other interaction can be divided into sub categories to vocal communication.

These first two studies, isolated and feral children, can be viewed through one of Charles Horton Cooley’s theories on human interaction. Cooley, who lived in the late 1800s, created a theory that summed up how human development occurs, capturing the theory in the concept of ‘the looking glass self’. This theory had three primary elements: we imagine how we appear to those around us, we interpret others’ reactions, and we develop a self concept. The basic gist of it is that we look at those around us, and base our appearance and social interactions on what they do and what they expect. If a feral child is raised by animals, he is going to acquire the attributes of those animals. Likewise, an isolated child will base his actions on other isolated individuals or no one, and will develop little or no basic interaction skill.

Still more common than isolated or feral children is institutionalized children. Two or three centuries ago, orphanages were much different than they are now. Children were raised with little or no care on a strict schedule. On top of this, children were often beaten, ragged, and denied food. As a result, children coming from orphanages tended to have difficulty establishing close bonds with others, and have lower IQs. In an account of a good Iowa orphanage in the 1930s, children were raised in the nursery until about six months. They were placed in cribs that had tall sides, effectively limiting vision to the world around them. No toys were hung from the cribs, not mother held them closely. The interaction they did get was limited to nurses who changed diapers, bedding, and provided them medication. Although everyone assumed that mental retardation was a “he was just born that way” issue, two sociologists investigated and followed the lives of the children who were raised in this Iowa orphanage. H. M. Skeels and H. B. Dye began to understand that a lack of mental stimulation was depriving these children of the basic human interaction skills they needed to be effective members of society. In a study, they took thirteen children who were obviously retarded and assigned them a retarded woman who would look after them. They also chose twelve children who would be raised in the orphanage the usual way, and tested both groups for IQ. The first group was noted to develop an intense relationship with their respective ‘mothers’, and received much more

attention than their counterparts. While all of the studied children were still retarded, it was noted that the first group’s IQs spiked by a jaw-dropping average of 28 points. In an equally startling statistic, it was found that the other group’s average dropped by an average of 30 IQ points. This study demonstrated the importance of human interaction at a young age.

A final lesson can be taken from deprived animals. These are animals that were stripped from their mother at a young age and raised in isolation. A famous study regarding this topic was conducted by Harry and Margaret Harlow, who raised a baby monkey in isolation. They constructed two ‘mothers’ for their monkey, one which was a wire frame with a nipple on it from which the monkey could nurse, and one that was covered in soft fabric. They found that even though the first mother provided nourishment, the baby would cling to the soft mother when frightened, showing that the monkey felt more comfortable through intimate physical contact – or cuddling.

When the monkey was introduced to a monkey community, he was rejected, and had no concept of how normal monkey civilization was structured. He knew neither how to play normally with the other monkeys, nor how to engage in sexual intercourse, despite several feeble attempts.

Upon conducting this study with female monkeys, they found that those that did become pregnant became vicious mothers – they struck their babies, kicked them, or crushed them against the floor. These were monkeys who were raised in this isolated environment for years, and had no chance of integration to society. Other monkeys were observed to overcome these disabilities with increasingly positive results: a corresponding relationship with the amount of time spent in isolation. Monkeys isolated for three to six months were relatively easily integrated, while monkeys isolated for years suffered irreversible effects. When applied to humans, we understand that social interaction is key to a socially efficient product.

In short, society makes us human. Babies do not naturally develop into adults, and social ideas are not transferred via DNA. Although the body may grow, isolation victimizes them to be little more than mere animals. In fact, a lack of language skill results in an inability to even grasp the relations between people – such as father, mother, teacher and friend. In order to develop into an adult, children must be surrounded by people who care for them. This process called “socialization” shows that we are crafted by those around us.

The Menace of Street Children

1. Overview

The problem of street children is found almost in every part of the world. Street children are homeless, spend day and night on the street, have no one to take care of them, are without shelter, usually do petty jobs to survive, become beggars, or victims of sexual abuse and other social transgressions.

They live in abandoned buildings, parks, auto garages, workshops and under the open sky. They are deprived of family care and protection. They cannot assimilate in society and become a liability rather than an asset. Lacking education, they turn into a work force that has no future. Mostly these are teenagers but some are as small as between seven years to twelve years.

2. Causes

There can be many causes behind this problem. These include;

  • Rampant poverty,
  • Domestic violence,
  • Family breakdown,
  • Orphans,
  • Armed conflicts,
  • Displacement,
  • Famine,
  • Natural calamities,
  • Physical and sexual abuse,
  • Exploitation by adults,
  • Urbanization and overcrowding,
  • Acculturation,
  • Diseases and others.

Due to these causes children become subject of neglect, abuse, exploitation, and sometimes even murder. They move to big cities in order to find work for their survival. They feel frightened and helpless. They cannot even save themselves from weather cruelties and have no access to medicine when they fall ill. Having no qualification, education or necessary skills to adjust in the society, they become disconnected and end up on streets.

3. Categories

Street children can mainly be found in two categories. One that becomes the bully type or the ones who learn to survive through means considered illegal in civilized society. They end up doing criminal or unethical activities. Their activities may vary from picking pockets to vandalism, from theft to dacoity, from rape to murder, from dealing in drugs to child trafficking. They become protege of gangsters, face police torture and sometimes become violent to strangers.

It all begins with the basic instinct of survival. A street child will do anything to survive. He would be first afraid of doing anything illegal but would do it when he is hard pressed to do so. As illiterate and without professional training, they face difficulty in finding proper jobs. Also public has overwhelmingly negative views about them. The public views them with suspicion and fear while many would like them to disappear. Street children fall prey to illegal activities, sometimes in reaction to the above mentioned discretionary attitude towards them and sometimes in order to sustain themselves.

Many of this type of street children become juvenile offenders and find a place in overcrowded prisons. There they have every chance of becoming hardened criminals. They even subject their fellow street children to do their bidding. Some become members of street gangs, drugs mafia and child trafficking rackets. They form their own pressure groups. These are exploited and manipulated by the more powerful people like private business proprietors, civilians, law enforcement personnel and security agencies.

The second category of street children includes those who have become victim of their fellows and other man made problems. They lack the tactics, will power or physical endurance to keep abreast with the demand of their tough life. These are the ones most vulnerable to social evils like physical and sexual abuse, torture, exploitation, child trafficking, begging and drugs among others. Girls and minor boys may be subjected to prostitution or other sexual activities by force, coercion or fraud.

4. Child trafficking, an example

Child trafficking is one particular example of the horrors faced by these children. The victims of child trafficking are mostly from second category of street children. They are recruited, transported, harboured and received for different exploitative purposes. Trafficking may include such pervasive purposes as forced labour, servitude, slavery and removal of organs, or it may include such illicit activities as prostitution, sexual exploitation, early marriages, child soldiers and begging. United Nations and other NGOs are working continuously in countering this practice. Many governments have also made laws to prevent this practice.

In developing countries they form a source of cheap labour. House-maids, workshop boys, hotel servants, couriers, delivery boys, baby sitters and even servants can be seen to form a pool of cheap labour.

A particular such case is that of South Asian children being trafficked to Middle East as camel jockeys. These children are kept in unhealthy congested places with no or limited access to basic amenities of life. They are then blindfolded and made to ride a camel in races. Their food and other wages are tied with their performance in the races. If a child does not perform well, he may be tortured or kept without food for days.

5. Major problems street children face

Major problems faced by these children are;

  • Hunger,
  • Diseases,
  • Loneliness,
  • Delinquency,
  • Uncleanliness,
  • Prostitution,
  • Violence,
  • Slavery,
  • Child trafficking, and
  • Abuse

These are the problems mostly faced by the street children but to eliminate these problems effectively we have to solve some more important problems first. These include;

  • Illiteracy,
  • Professional training,
  • Help in setting up their future,
  • Sense of alienation, and
  • Absence of love

6. Some work done

The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides the basic framework to protect street children. Though most governments have ratified the above said treaty, they have failed to protect these children. Governments find no economic leverage in their welfare. Also these children have no right of vote and no share in governance. So the governments pay little heed to them. Mostly, when governments do tend to find a solution, they put these children in orphanages, juvenile homes or correction centres. Sometimes, governments work in collaboration with NGOs on many programmes aimed at welfare of these children.

7. Suggestions

The problem of street children can be handled properly if we could develop a multi-pronged strategy that works for the welfare and ease of both the society and the child.

This may involve;

  • Advocacy of the cause of street children,
  • Community support and education,
  • Residential rehabilitation programmes,
  • Full-care residential homes, and
  • Other such programmes.

Some NGOs have successfully applied the following strategies;

  • Special targeted feeding programmes providing these children with food supplements,
  • Providing free medical services to these children,
  • Legal assistance in claiming their rights and standing on their own feet,
  • Education in an environment which helps them to learn rather than forcing them to avoid schools,
  • Family re-unification where possible,
  • Night shelter centres and drop-in centres for them,
  • Psychological and moral support providing better integration into mainstream population,
  • Changing attitude of street children towards their circumstances making more self aware and self-relying.

Teachers Have a Great Role in the Upbringing of Children

School is a place where child learns and gets maximum knowledge and growth during the learning process. It is also a place where his hidden potentials are tapped. This learning process for a child starts when the parents send the child to playschool and continues until college where he receives his graduation or post graduation.

As we see it clearly that a child spends nearly 6 to 7 hours a day throughout the year (except during holidays) in school, it is obvious that teachers have a great role to play in the upbringing of children.

As a child can be easily molded in a right way like clay in a potter’s hand, it is important to understand that teachers can correct the child’s behaviour and character, whenever and wherever necessary. He can also shape up the child’s personality by being a role model in upbringing the children in school.

As children are very affectionate, innocent, adaptable and docile, it becomes mandatory for the teachers to have both professional competency and a very strong moral background as she can gradually influence and shape up each child’s personality with gentle persuasion.

As most children have a great respect for their teachers, this advantage must be properly utilized in correcting, advising and upbringing the children by leading kids during different challenging situations and circumstances encountered in classrooms.

Besides, a teacher is a second parent to each one of her students. Whether the child is too young or in his teens, a teacher must be effective in her approach by being impartial, loving and simultaneously leading through examples in all her endeavors.

As teacher has a vital role to play in a student’s life, it is correct to say they are the people who could create generations altogether. In short they are in some way the builder of our nation as they are exposed to a mass of students who are the future citizens of the country. So, it is very crucial and elementary for the teachers to lead and influence the students aptly in every walk of life no matter whether it is in a classroom or even outside the class.

Teachers should also inspire their students to build them into great personality whether they become architect, engineer, doctors, teachers, businessmen or any professions of their interest. They should also shape them to contribute to the society by being upstanding citizens of our nation.

The main role a teacher could do is to make her class very interesting by getting almost all the students involved by asking questions or while discussing a topic. The more involvement, the more the child learns. This way the learning gets easier and interesting.

Besides, even outside the class room, she needs to continue to influence and correct the children by building their character in all aspects of life.

Nevertheless, it is worth stating that the students can be successful in his life if equal support is backed up by the parent at home as well.

The Difference Between Indigo Children, Adults and Lightworkers

Indigo Children / Adults have much to do with lightworkers, and sometimes they may seem even the same thing. In this article I will show you what these two groups of extremely special people really are and what the difference is between them.

What is an Indigo Child or Adult? Indigo Children and Adults are special souls that incarnate here from other planets or dimensions. They are in this world, but they are not of it. There is a marked difference in their level of vibration to the vibrations of normal Earth souls. Contrary to what many people are saying nowadays, I believe indigos to make up no more than 0.1% of the world’s population, possibly less.

Lightworkers are souls who decide to dedicate themselves to raising this world up in vibration. They are not solely indigo children and adults, though they often are. A high level of vibration is needed to sincerely desire to heal the Earth, at the very least an open heart which most Earth souls don’t have. Some Earth souls, nevertheless, achieve a level of vibration equivalent to the indigo soul’s vibration in the space of a single lifetime, and choose to take up a place in the healing of this Earth. The difference between those people and indigo children / adults is that indigo children / adults have a higher vibration at the soul level. Free will is a constant for all levels of vibration but when an indigo child / adult gets tied up in negative energies, they will tend to feel even more unhappy than a normal person, which will push them even stronger than a normal person to raise their vibration. On the other hand to reach a higher level of vibration an Earth soul may need to use a sustained effort which isn’t necessary for an indigo child or adult. In this way indigo children / adults tend towards a different equilibrium, so to speak, and are much more likely to reach the vibration at which they can feel a strong desire to help out the Earth in its plight.

Helping Children to Comprehend Faster For Better School Achievements

Helping your children to comprehend faster will assist them in succeeding with their school work. By becoming more involved with your child’s reading abilities, you can ensure that they do not fall behind in class. Children don’t enjoy reading if they struggle with comprehension, therefore it is best if they learn to comprehend faster from the youngest age possible.

There is no need to wait until the child is reading at a very efficient level before starting to work on comprehension techniques. Learning to read and comprehend should be taught together so that they can work together. Besides, children may get bored with reading if it has no meaning for them. When the child first learns to read a story and enjoy it, it is a major step in his life and everything possible should be done to encourage this initial fascination with reading.

Basic comprehension techniques can help children of all ages to comprehend faster. One of the best ways to improve this skill is to try and increase the child’s vocabulary. If a child has a very limited vocabulary, he/she will find most reading difficult, as words are constantly found within the reading that are not understood. When children find a word that they are unfamiliar with, (in reading), they will first try to sound it out. If they don’t know the word at all, sounding it out won’t help. If they do know the word, it will be recognized as soon as it is spoken.

To help increase their vocabulary, try to think up a couple of new words everyday, of which you think your child does not know the meaning. Use them in a sentence when speaking to your child and watch their reaction. They may ask you what it means, or you may have to find out if they understood what you said. Explain the meaning of the word and then have your child make up his own sentence including the new word to make sure that he has understood. Having a good vocabulary will enable your child to comprehend faster when reading.

Try to determine, now and then, how much of the text your child is really taking in. Allow them to read a section of the writing. Then ask some questions. The length of the reading and difficulty of the questions will depend on the age of the child and his/her current reading ability. Start with some general questions, and if they are answered well, move on to more detailed questions. Let your child read the section only once and not look at the reading when answering. Don’t let your child know that you will be testing him/her. It may cause the child to stress and try to read with extra caution. Do the testing randomly in a fun and casual manner.

Your child will be able to comprehend faster if he/she is encouraged to read more often. Consider dedicating 15 – 30 minutes each day for family reading time. Everyone in the family can sit together and silently read something they enjoy. Your child is more likely to take an interest in reading if they see you doing the same.

Being able to eventually speed read and comprehend faster will give your child a real advantage in school. Around the age of 12, children often pick up the skills of speed reading very easily. It is never too early to get involved with and improve your child’s reading abilities.

Problems of Backward Children

Meaning of backwardness:

A state of being below the normally accepted level in learning of things is called backwardness. It is not abnormal which implies the worst level. On the other hand, it is a retrograde measure from the marked level of learning. Such backwardness in a child in most of the contexts make the child feel secluded. Whatever may be the reason for this, the teacher at school as well as the parents at home are expected to know much about children to pay more attention on the issues with the children.

Causes for backwardness:

The reason for the backwardness with a child may be either within the individual or outside him in the environment. The entire cause cannot be attributed exclusively to heredity factor or to environmental factor. They are indeed interactive with mutual effect in the following cases.

i) Subnormal physical conditions:

Some children are born with biologically inherited weak body lacking normal conditions in sensory organs. Bart’s research work says that almost 79% of the backwardness is due to such physiological gone back conditions.

ii) Physical defects and diseases:

The defects in speech, hearing, vision, left handedness, etc are some bodily defects due to improper functioning of the sense organs. Along with any one or two of the before said defects, problems like tonsils, malnutrition, migraine joining together may affect much. The child suffers a subnormal scholastic attainment in school and in study at home. Such physical defects may in some cases be due to a low measure of innate capacity.

iii) Poverty and economic condition:

Poverty in children is another factor which impairs the health of the children and limits the general knowledge. It narrows the mental range of reach to the subject. This is prevalent mostly with children dwelling in slum area. There are cases from other area also. Children belonging to crowded family with limited conditions of economic facilities and amenities also liable for backwardness in concentrating on their studies.

iv) Emotional and moral conditions:

Emotional and moral conditions of the home may be accounted as another factor for backwardness. The daily life at home is dependent of parental sympathy, adjustments, and flexible guidelines in family affairs. If the children lack at any level in these matters, they feel thrown in insecurity along with frequent quarrels.

v) Harsh attitude and dominance by parents:

Harsh attitude and over dominance by the parents to the children result in neurotic problems which affect normal learning and confidence in attaining standard.

vi) Influence of neighborhood:

The influence of neighborhood is another factor which contributes to the problem of subnormal scholastic attainments. The unpleasing conditions of the quarters and streets may nit be encouraging the children to have good friends to support in his studies. Bad friends in gang are also responsible for turning delinquents in large number.

vii) Specific factors:

Backwardness in specific abilities such as reading, writing and arithmetic are also to be added as factors for general backwardness. Since the total outcome is dependent of such factors specifically, the duty of the teachers is to detect and help them in time properly by compensating with some other enlightening talents to keep the balance at equilibrium.

Discovering backwardness:

The teachers at school and the parents at home should play their effective role in discovering the backwardness and giving remedies. The tips for the same follows:

i) Diagnostic tests ii) Standard tests of sensory perfections iii) Assessing emotional characters and temperaments iv) Scholastic tests in school subjects v) Continuous observation

Conclusion:

After discovering the defects, proper medical treatment or friendly counseling by experts may be given. Home conditions and school conditions may be modified. Alternative curriculum and modified method of teaching may be suggested. Specially trained teachers in children education should handle backward children. Wrong parental care and over dominance at home should be totally stopped. Specific care should be taken for specific difficulties whether personal or academic in nature.

5 Problems For Children in Africa

I will simply provide the list below and provide my own brief review for each point I make. If you take some time to read the article right to the end, you will gain more valuable insights in to this serious subject.

Most of them cannot afford to go to school or are forced drop out

A good education is important to improve the lives of African children. Children in Africa lack financial resources to be able to go to school. A large portion of the African population has people who live below the poverty line, and thus many families cannot afford to take their children to school because it is expensive. For example 69% of the people in Swaziland live with just about $3 per month. This has caused under privileged children not to have formal education.

Rape is another problem that children are faced with in the African continent

Sexual violence is one of the largest crimes against children, which threaten lives of so many of them. Violence, domestic abuse and discrimination are some of the painful things children have to go through everyday of their lives.

African countries have poor health care facilities, which have resulted in an increase in health problems for children

The lack of health care facilities has increased the number of deaths of children. Children suffer from water-borne infection from the lack of clean drinking water. Children also get health problem through mother to infant, where mothers abuse alcohol and drugs creating abnormalities and growth disorder to infants.

Another problem faced by children is starvation, which is caused by poverty where there is lack of financial resources to buy food

Starvation has resulted in malnutrition and underweight children. Most African countries rely on food donations in order to feed the hungry children; also there are orphanages where orphans are taken care of and given the necessary basic needs.

A large number of children in Africa are infected and or affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic

This has increased the number of orphans and vulnerable children and causing a large number of the young ones to be without parents or a guardian. The pandemic has resulted to a high number of child-headed households. Furthermore, because these kids are not adequately taught, they have a high chance of contracting the HIV virus while taking care of their sick parents or by being engaged in “sex games”.

His Most Famous Painting (Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale) – Max Ernst

Max Ernst (April 1891-April 1976), an intellectual artist, was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. One of the key founders of ‘Dadaism’ and ‘Surrealism,’ Max enrolled in the University of Bonn in 1909, where he studied philosophy and abnormal psychology, which provided material for his art. In 1912, he seriously turned to painting, but it was only in 1918, after his war service, that he began to develop his own unique style. He made a series of collages, using illustrations from medical and technical magazines to form bizarre juxtapositions of images. In 1924, Ernst created his famous -painting, “Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale.”

This oil on wood painting, measuring 27 1/2 x 22 1/2 x 4 1/2 in. (69.8 x 57.1 x 11.4 cm), starts from one of those instincts of irrational panic, which we suppress when we are fully awake and conscious. In this painting, a red wooden gate, attached superficially to the painted surface of the canvas, acts as an entryway to the pastoral view, with a blue sky sharing the major proportion of the art piece. “Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale,” depicts a girl, scared by the flying bird (birds were frequent in Ernst’s work), has a knife. Another one faints away on the ground. A man, shown atop the roof, is carrying a baby. He tries to strike a balance with his hand groping to grab a knob. The knob is fastened to an old fashioned, three-dimensional supplement of the canvas. This combination of unlike elements on different planes employs the collage technique.

A small bird turning frightening, despite being significant in size, alarm bell staying out of reach, are all the elements of dreams and fantasies. “Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale” incorporates the elements of traditional European painting, such as illusion of death, a dominant sky, formal poses, architectural style of dome & tower, and a triumphal arch. In addition, the painting violates the traditional painting rules of staying within the frame. “Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale” ‘actually’ breaks out of the frame, such as the doorbell, the gate, and the house, are superficial three-dimensional, physical objects.

In a way, in Max’s “Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale,” viewers get a perception of swinging between real and imaginary, creative and actual. The scene does look false and purely imaginary that too quite elementary or childish. Nothing looks sensible in the picture. Yet, despite all those traditional boundaries, the total experience is incredible. Ernst dared to re-create a feeling, quite familiar to us through our dreams. The elements of the painting have a total disorientation. They seem to belong to a fantasy world, where the scales, volumes, and functions have their unique tangents of purpose. This masterpiece is presently gracing The Museum of Modern Art, New York.