Laws for Juvenile Delinquents and Children in Need of Care and Protection

A child is regarded as a delinquent when he/she commits an act which is against the law for the time being in force and at the same time also not accepted by the society at large. The prime law for juvenile delinquency in India for the time being in force is the Juvenile Justice (Care And Protection Of Children) Act 2015.

Earlier various laws were enacted to deal with the menace of juvenile delinquency which includes:

1. Apprentices Act,1850

This was the very first legislation which brought children on a different footing from that of adult criminals and offenders. This Act provided that children who belong to an age group of 10-18 years convicted of any offence by the Court of Law are to be given such vocational training which will help in their rehabilitation process.

2. Reformatory School Act, 1897

Under this Act, the Court was empowered to detain the juvenile delinquents in reformatory schools for a time span of 2-7 years and also mentioned that the same could not be continued after such a juvenile has attained the age of 18years.

3. Madras Children Act, 1920

This was the very first Act which brought forth the concept of juvenile courts and the same was later on followed in legislation regarding juveniles by Bengal legislature in Bengal Children Act, 1922 followed by Bombay Children Act, 1924.

4. The Children Act, 1960

This Act was a development over the previous legislation as it was passed to set a basic model which was to be followed. It provided for very elaborate and technical provisions coverings various aspects. It provided for the establishment of Special Child Welfare Boards which was specially designed to handle the cases of the neglected children. The Act also went on to create a special post for the position of a probationary officer whose function was to advise and assist the delinquent juveniles. Furthermore, it established special courts for children which dealt with the cases regarding the juvenile delinquents. This Act was the first detailed legislation discussing all the aspects regarding the juvenile delinquency

5. National Policy for The Welfare of Children, 1974

The policy was a very welcoming step towards the development of children of the nation as it laid stress on making such policies which would help in grooming and development of children and also stressed on providing equal opportunity to all children during their phase of development which would end up reducing the rate of juvenile delinquency and would increase the human resource of the nation at large. This policy along with previous legislation helped in the formulation of a uniform code for delivery of juvenile justice system in India.

6. Juvenile Justice Act, 1986

India was the first country to enumerate the principles of United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration Of Justice by enacting the Juvenile Justice Act, 1986. This Act laid the basic framework of the juvenile justice system in India. The Act provided for a special approach which was required to be followed for the prevention and control of the juvenile delinquency, it has set norms and standards for the administration of juvenile justice. The Act gave an inclusive definition of juvenile. According to the Act, the juvenile is a boy who has not attained 16 years of age and a girl who has not attained 18 years of age. It also provided for the formation of special homes for the juvenile delinquents and handling of the cases of juveniles by special juvenile courts. This Act by and large provided for an approach which provided for the care, protection, rehabilitation, and treatment of the delinquent juveniles. This Act repealed all previous legislation and formed the first uniform code of juvenile justice system in India.

7. Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2000

This Act was a modification of the Juvenile Justice Act of 1986. This Act was enforced in April 2001. This Act ensured that the children who are in need of care and protection are provided with all the necessary facilities despite their religion.

8. Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act,2014

This Act replaces the previously mentioned Acts. It lays down a provision whereby juveniles between the age group of 16-18 years may be tried as adults with regards to serious and heinous crimes. The Act allowed the juvenile justice board to decide whether a juvenile should be treated as an adult in a particular case or not. The juvenile justice board constitutes a psychologist and a sociologist as well. This Act introduced the provision of Hauge Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter-Country Adoption, 1993 which were not included in the previously mentioned legislation. The Act also provides for the adoption of the orphan, abandoned and surrendered children.

9. Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2015

This Act is presently in force and followed throughout India. The Act divides juveniles into two sets;

a. The child in conflict with law

b. Child in need of care and protection

The Act provides for a uniform rule for all children below the age of 18 years and also provides an exception for children belonging to the age group of 16-18years specifying that they may be tried as adults with regards to the serious and heinous offence if any committed by them. Under the said Act an imprisonment varying from 3-7 years is provided for various offences varying from serious, heinous to petty offences. It strictly laid down that no child could be awarded a sentence of death despite the offence committed by them. It also provided for a mandatory establishment of a juvenile justice board in every district which would be presided by a metropolitan magistrate and also two social workers, including a woman. The board is required to conduct a primary investigation regarding the crime committed within a particular time span and decide thereupon whether a particular child ought to be sent to a rehabilitation center or not. Lastly, a special court is also established under the Act which is empowered to try cases against the juveniles and also provided that in case such court is not established the sessions court has the jurisdiction to try the juvenile under this Act. The act also requires the establishment of a Child Welfare Committee.

Besides these legislations, various provisions are made for children in the Constitution of India under article 15(3) which enables the state to make special provisions for the development of children followed by Article 23 which prohibits human trafficking forced labour and beggar this was a practice which had exploited children badly. Also, Article 24 of the provided for the prohibition on employment of children under 14 years of age. These provisions were enacted in the Constitution to ensure that the development of the children is not hindered and that they do not tend to develop delinquent traits.

Not only limited to the constitution the India Penal Code as well and the Code of Criminal Procedure provides for special provisions for children which are as follows:

1. Section 82 of the IPC

It provides for an absolute immunity to a child below 7 years of age stating that nothing is an offence which is done by a child below 7 years of age.

2. Section 83 of the IPC

This section again provides that an offence committed by a child above 7 years of age and below 12 years is not an offence if such a child does not have sufficient maturity to understand the judge the consequences of his act.

3. section 317 of the IPC

Whoever being the father or mother of a child under the age of twelve years, having the care of such child, shall expose or leave such child in any place with the intention of wholly abandoning such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years; or with fine, or with both.

4. section 361of the IPC

Whoever takes or entices any minor under sixteen years of age if a male, or under eighteen years of age if a female, or any person of unsound mind, out of the keeping of the lawful guardian of such minor or person of unsound mind, without the consent of such guardian, is said to kidnap such minor or person from lawful guardianship.

5. Section 27 of The Code of Criminal Procedure

Any offence not punishable with death or imprisonment for life, committed by any person who at the date when he appears or is brought before the court is under the age of sixteen years, may be tried by the court of’ a Chief- Judicial Magistrate, or by any court specially empowered under the Children Act, 1960 (60 of 1960), or any other law for the time being in force providing for the treatment, training and rehabilitation of youthful offenders.

Children’s Health – How to Help Kids Get Active

I saw an interesting post on Facebook from a relative. Her children had been given iPads at school… to be brought home. They were to use them for homework assignments. The parents had to pay a fee in case the child lost or damaged the computer. The parents also weren’t given a choice.

You would think that we have enough problems getting our children active after classtime is over without demanding the use of a piece of equipment. You know it’s not going to be used by one teacher. All of them will do it. All of my teachers did it back in the old days when we had to go to the library.

Talk to the teachers: This is not the time to be a helicopter parent, but it is something that should be discussed between the parents and the teachers. There are many issues that need to be addressed including the problem of too much homework. Even with the internet writing six papers would be hard for any child and depending on the age and type of class it is a possibility.

Limits: These teaching devices are not going to just be used for homework. The world is available and once they are done with the classroom assignments the internet beckons. This is where we have to step in and get our children up and moving. Set a limit as to how long they can play so they have time to be active.

Example: We need to lead by example. After going over the program with the teachers and setting limits for our children we need to set limits for ourselves and get active. Spend a half an hour playing catch (girls like it, too). Go for a family walk. Let the kids see that this is how to live a healthy lifestyle.

Once we have the internet in our lives it’s very easy to get into bad habits. Not being active is one of them.

Why Taboo Can Be A Great Game For Young Children

Taboo is a very popular game among adults as it is often played at parties and other social functions. Taboo requires the player to use clues to get his or her partner to be able to say a specified word. However, the player cannot use the word itself or any of the five other words listed on the card. The player is also not allowed to use their hands or other body parts to act out the word. This sounds like a hard game for younger children, but it is actually very helpful to them for their future.

#1: It Teaches Children To Be Innovative

Taboo is unique in that it forces the player to give out clues to a certain word that aren’t obvious clues that would directly lead the player’s partner to the word. For example, if the word were basketball, and the taboo words were “rim”, “backboard”, “sport”, “free throw”, and “court”, the player would have to think of another way to get his or her partner to say basketball without saying any of those taboo words.

One of the concepts of Taboo is finding another way in when the most common way is not an option (the most common way being analogous to the taboo words in the game). Often in life, one must learn to find detours or find another way when the obvious road is blocked. Examples of this include: 1) finding a different material to build something if the material you are looking for isn’t available or 2) thinking of another way to fix something when one way doesn’t work. Playing Taboo gives young children the chance to build the innovative skills that they will need later in life.

#2: Taboo Also Teaches Young Children How To Thrive Under Time Pressure

Even if the player is able to come up with words that are on the taboo list, he or she must get his/her partner to guess as many words as possible within one minute. This kind of time pressure can force the player to make mistakes under pressure such as accidentally giving an illegal clue. In real life, pressure to perform under tight deadlines are always present. Taboo helps young children understand what time pressure is about and helps get the children on their way to thriving in that environment.

Love Your Children – Validation

There are many ways to show that you love your children. In a previous article, I discussed the importance of loving your kids unconditionally–nothing they can say or do could ever diminish your love for them. This helps them feel lovable.

Another important way to show you love your children is through validation. To validate something, or in this case someone, means to bestow value upon it. Children need unconditional validation, as much as they need unconditional love. That means, letting your children know that not only are they always loved, but they are always valued as individuals, no matter what. Just as your love helps them learn to love themselves and feel secure and worthwhile, your validation helps them feel recognized for who they are and begin to feel confident, competent, capable, and appreciated for their own specialness.

Showing your children that they are valued occurs in a variety of ways, and in a variety of situations. Valuing your children for simply existing in your life can be conveyed through love and affirmations. Your children need to know that they don’t have to do a thing for you to love and value them.

Your child also needs to know that he is valued for the person he is, for the qualities and traits that he has. It is important to recognize who your child is, then show him how you value him for the person he is. For instance, if your child is ‘silly,’ then, be sure that he knows that you enjoy this characteristic, and validate this special quality. Now, certainly you may need to help him learn when it’s appropriate to demonstrate a particular characteristic and when it is not, but enjoying that quality can help validate this aspect of your child so that he can fully blossom.

I worked with a child whose father took things very seriously. When he threw a ball with his son, he expected his son to throw it back the ‘right’ way. When he took him bowling, the boy had to follow all instructions. Sure, we want to teach our children the proper way to do things. But, there needs to be a time to allow the child to be silly, especially if that’s a part of who he is. So, when he giggled and started throwing the baseball between his legs, or tried to see how many gutter balls he could get, this father had a choice. He could enjoy the moment and validate his son by laughing and joining in, or storm off and call it quits, which is what he chose to do. The boy’s comment to me? “I don’t think my daddy likes me very much.”

So, how about you? How do you allow your children to be themselves? How do you validate and appreciate their uniqueness and special qualities? Validation is a very important part of feeling loved, valued and positive about themselves.

The Hazards of Feeding Soy to Children

Do you feed your baby something besides breast milk? Does it contain soy or Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)? Isoflavones in these soy milk replacers are a serious reason for concern. Approximately 25% of bottle-fed children in the United States receive soy-based formula.

Feeding soy milk replacer began in the 1970’s. By 1998, investigators reported that the daily exposure of infants to isoflavones in soy infant formula is six to eleven times higher on a body-weight basis than the dose that has hormonal effects in adults consuming soy foods. Circulating concentrations of isoflavones in infants fed soy-based formula were 13,000 to 22,000 times higher than plasma estradiol concentrations than infants fed cow’s milk formula.

Would you feed your baby birth control pills? One researcher estimated that an infant exclusively fed soy formula receives the estrogenic equivalent (based on body weight) of at least five birth control pills per day. Almost no phytoestrogens have been detected in dairy-based infant formula or in human milk, even when the mother consumes soy products. So, what does this do to our children? Read the list below and be concerned if your child is showing any of these signs and symptoms.

In children, soy anecdotes have included:

o Asthma

o Changed patterns of sexual orientation (influenced by the early hormonal environment)

o Extreme emotional behavior

o Immune system problems

o Impairment of spatial perception

o Infantile leukemia

o Irritable bowel

o Learning disabilities–especially in male children

o Pituitary insufficiency

o Precociousness–Male infants undergo a “testosterone surge” during the first few months of life, where testosterone levels may be as high as those of an adult male.

o Thyroid disorders

o Visual discrimination tasks required for reading

Can’t have dairy? There are options. Other combinations of formulas that may take a bit more time to make for your baby include mixtures of carrot juice, oat milk, almond milk, goat and rice milk.

If the mother is large-breasted, it also helps to use a breast pump, complete the milking process and combine all three fractions of milk. If the baby only gets the first fraction, which is more watery and has less protein, it makes the baby gassy. Also, if the mother eats lots of raw fruits and vegetables, she will have lots of milk and the milk will be healthier for the baby. I’ve personally seen a midwife adopt a newborn baby, take milk-producing herbs, and nurse the baby herself for a year using her own breasts! Herbs can be very powerful when you know which ones to use.

Other purists recommend raw, unpasteurized milk, saying that the baby will not be allergic to this since the proteins within the milk have not been modified from the pasteurizing process or from using microwave ovens. You will have to make your own decisions and choices with this (know your source!) as this type of milk is hard to obtain and can be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria if not handled and processed properly. There is nothing wrong with visiting the farm and taking a look at their cleanliness habits and the rooms they process the milk in.

The new Ultra Pasteurized Milks and products that have been microwaved are another issue totally. Ultra Pasteurized milk has been implicated in Crohn’s disease and the body cannot process some or most protein that has been microwaved. Heat any milk replacer over a burner to be safe. I do not advocate either of these options either. But, that’s for another day.

How to Improve Focus in Children

Kids are the cheeriness of all homes, and watching their playful moments will cart off the intensity of even the mournful situations. However, the bringing up of children is a bit strenuous, especially, from the infancy to teenage year. Many parents earnestly complain about the difficulty of the situation. Proper nurturing and imparting the right education to them is of prime importance. Everyone will have to make sure about this, which is imperative to shape them as bona fide citizens of the country.

Teach Kids How to Focus

Parents must teach children how to concentrate or focus on whatever job they do, as this is the way to make them confident and winning. This method will decide the perfectness and success of their future endeavors.

Try These to Augment the Focusing Ability of Your Kids

  • In our time, devices such as tablets, computers, smart phones, etc., pose a real threat to children. These modern tools trim down the ability to focus clearly. Besides, these gadgets take the kids away from books, and within no time, they will become addicted to the use of these devices. Focusing on a particular subject will be a problem for such children. Parents must take care not to use these gadgets for a long time when they stay within the vicinity of children.
  • As playing will be of top-most interest to all kids, the best practical way to make them interested in any subject is through playing. You can buy them educational toys such as puzzles, memory games, etc. Besides, you must also play with them, which will make the game more interesting to them. Such games will augment the focusing ability of the child considerably.
  • There are numerous memory-boosting play items in the present-day market. You must buy such toys for the kids, and make them play those.
  • Yet another practical way to enhance the capability of focusing is to make the environment calm. You must make it a point that the study time of the kids must remain practically serene. Naturally, the calmness of the ambiance will develop mental alertness in kids, which directly influences the focusing skill.
  • You can prepare a perfect working schedule for the kids. However, just making a schedule and leaving the same with them will not yield any results. You must sit with them and see that they follow the time-table. Though a bit tiresome, this effort is a sure way to enhance the focusing ability of the kid.
  • You must pay keen attention to provide children with the right kind of food. The food you provide must contain the needed micronutrients like iron, zinc, copper, etc., and also the desired vitamins. A good blend of these will make it healthy for the kids. Consumption of healthy food is vital for enhancing the concentration power of children.
  • It is a must that parents must provide adequate leisure time for their children. Playing time must not collide with the study time.
  • You must allow them to move freely with their friends, albeit you will have to keep a watch on their movements. Building social bonds is a must to make the minds mature, and maturity is essential for mental concentration.
  • Children must get enough sleep, which will make the body metabolism perfect. School-going children should sleep at least 8 to 9 hours a day. Adequate sleep will enhance the power of concentration.
  • Awarding for personal achievements in the school (let it be in the field of academics, arts, or sports) is the best bet for boosting the morale of the children. Hence, they will be keen to attain the highest possible position in every endeavor, which will augment the focusing ability.

5 Amazing Benefits of PC Games to Children

Games have become an essential part of a child’s development now. Parents are more concerned about what games the kids are playing rather than worrying about why at all they are playing games. If you are a new parent then you must learn to encourage your child more into playing PC games rather than playing any other games in the play time. For this scenario, we should give special thanks to the developers. They have used their intelligence and skills to make the games educative. Let us know some of the benefits that parents can get from the games.

Teach Kids Problem-Solving Skills

Games are responsible for the rapid development of the brain. This happens because you have to plan, negotiate and take actions in the game instantly and also in a proper order. A slight mistake can make you lose the game. They can learn a different technique to advance.

Making Them Creative

The games will make you creative. They will understand the rules of the game, be creative to explore and plan in their own way rather than following the same old ways. This will highlight personalities and several interests in the kinds. The games do not necessarily have to be “educational” teaching “A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, etc. They can be any normal game which offers relevant information. In that attempt, they will develop a better personality.

Can Encourage Interest in History and Culture

Parents can choose the contents of the game wisely. There are games that have the ancient culture in the background. This can help to grow the interest of your child in the world geography and history. They might take to internet and books to learn the details. These games also enable the kids to choose maps of different countries. This helps in learning and identifying the country names and their maps.

Making More Friends Becomes Easy

If your child is the shy type who remains isolated from others then the games might be quite helpful for you. The games create a ground for your child to make friends, hang out and spend time with them. The games became a common topic of discussion.

Gives the Opportunity to Take a Lead

The games when played in groups often allow your child to take leadership of the game at times. At other times they will become followers learning the good and bad of both the sides. This will enhance the leadership quality in the kids irrespective of what age they are.

All these qualities are really beneficial for the normal development of a child. Thus, parents are in no way wrong in encouraging their wards to play games.

The Biggest Mistake Made By Couples With Children

You’ve been married or living common-law for several years and have two children. Many of you probably can’t remember the last time you went to a movie together or had a dinner date without children. How do you ever find the time with all the demands of jobs and parenting? You barely have time to keep up with the laundry, never mind going to a movie.

What I’ve described is a very common scenario among married couples with children. We get caught up in the day to day managing of the household and our work outside the home. For some reason it just doesn’t seem as important as everything else. We in fact might even feel guilty if we spend the time and money to go out for dinner. We think of the cost of the babysitter, the dinner, the wine and the parking. We also think of the logistics around making it happen. We’ll often say to ourselves that it’s just too much trouble.

I’ve known couples where years can go by with no couple time at all. Each parent might spend time with their own friends but they don’t spend time with each other. When we neglect our primary relationship we risk losing it; the same as anything else in life we neglect. The strength and health of the relationship depends on how much time and effort we put into it. It doesn’t just happen. To make a relationship strong and healthy, we have to nurture it.

Children need and deserve a loving, safe and peaceful home environment. It’s what makes them feel loved and secure. We owe it to them to make it a priority to regularly work on our primary relationship not only for our sake, but for theirs. Yes, it takes time. Yes, it often takes money. Yes, it takes effort. Know, without a shred of doubt, that it’s worth it and your children will thank you.

Couples with children too often make the mistake of neglecting their relationship and risking the loss of the relationship, which is never anyone’s intention. Commit to setting up a date night at least twice a month. Do something together in the evening you both enjoy, once the kids have gone to bed. Send each other little love notes during the day. All these things work towards a strong union and a more secure foundation for your children.

Don’t catch yourself looking back five years after the birth of your first child, not being able to recall the last time you and your partner had a date or just took time out to be together in a meaningful way. It’s too easy to let things get off track to the point you’re not sure how to get back what you had in the beginning. It doesn’t have to be that way.

Age of Psychic Children

In this age of high technology and a higher state of consciousness, children are being born with a higher state of awareness. This evolutional psychic upgrade in those born from the time periods of the 1980’s forward are gifted in several extensions of a sixth sense and beyond.

Learning how to raise these psychic children can be discerning especially for those children who have visions and hear messages, bend silverware, or move objects with their minds. To some people of an older generation these gifts were considered superpowers and in some schools of thought they were considered evil. Times have changed and our evolving intuitive species has too.

Educating yourself in the paranormal and psychic fields can help a great deal in guiding and supporting psychic children to have a sense of pride in their abilities and be responsible. Books, magazines, and television shows such as Paranormal Cops and Paranormal State, Psychic Kids: Children of the Paranormal available for suggested age groups 13 and up. Explore and evaluate the best suitable media for your child’s particular gifts.

Perceptive, intuitive children are often overwhelmed with all the high-energy particles they have around them due to their keen sensitivity. Many of them absorb others problems, pains, worries, and struggles to such a point that they feel tired, sometimes depressed or lethargic from the overloaded accumulation of psychic energy. Learning to control their insightful sensitivity through a meditative activity is ideal but some kids are just too high-strung or young for such stillness of the mind. A class in martial arts, yoga, or tai chi can help your young psychic take control and become more balanced.

New learning communities have sprouted up locally and online that offer a curriculum for the intuitive arts and intelligences for home educators, teachers, and self-learners. Some of these schools can be found in the Spiritualist communities while others are found in traditional university sanctioned paranormal research. Depending upon your needs, the key is to stay open to the psychic levels and shifts without jumping into a study too quickly.

Every mystifying event you experience with your child is a meaningful awareness. Without discarding our capacity of rational discernment; we are being elevated to accept the higher part of our own intuitive process that each and every human being is born with. In this way, we are entering a new world view that provides a constant stream of miracles, big and small that guide us to a higher, more enlightened existence. This age of psychic children teaches us and helps us to discover a posture of growth and advancement in the wake of this evolutional leap.

Toys Can Attract Dirt and Germs That Could Be Harmful To Children

Children’s toys get very dirty throughout the day. They collect a lot of germs as well because children often put the toys in their mouth. It is very important to clean the toys after they have been used so that they do no spread germs and get your child or other children sick. Any object that a child touches should also be kept clean.

Keeping toys clean is an important task because kids pick up toys and put them in their mouth a lot when they are younger. Even older kids who play with toys may also spread germs easily by not washing their hands or touching the toys after eating. Washing the toys after they are played with will help prevent germs from spreading from one child to another. Even if only one child plays with the toys, it is still important to keep them clean. The child may get germs on some of their toys and the germs will spread and could get other people sick as well.

It is important to keep all surfaces that a child comes into contact with clean as well because children touch everything. Counters, tables, food areas, door knobs, bathrooms, and other items that are touched often should be cleaned every day as well. Keeping all areas where children play and have fun is an important part in keeping them safe and healthy.

Toys should also be cleaned after they have been played with outside. The toys may have dirt or mud on them that can be brought inside and get other things dirty as well. It is unsafe to play with toys that are covered in mud or dirt. Young children may try to put the items in their mouth even though it is covered in dirt. Even older children who know better may still touch the toy a lot and then put their hands near their mouth or eat without washing their hands if they aren’t reminded. There are many harmful things in dirt that can get a child sick if it is ingested. There have been many children who have gotten sick after ingesting dirt, so keeping toys clean from is very important.

Children’s bath toys also need to be cleaned. You may not think that bath toys can get dirty, but mold can grow on toys that are left wet after a bath. Mold is unhealthy for everyone, especially children, and it can grow in wet or moist areas. It is important to wash toys and make sure that they are dry after each use.

Rubber duckies and other similar toys can hold water inside, and you may not be able to get it all out. It is important to clean them with bleach water to prevent the mold from growing inside them. If mold start to grow and cleaning doesn’t help, the toys should be thrown away. Children like to put the bath toys in their mouth, and they often squirt the water out of the toys into their mouth.

Every toy that children play with should be washed at some point. Even if it doesn’t look dirty, it could still be carrying a lot of germs that could make you or your child sick. Cleaning toys is easy, and most hard toys only need to be washed with bleach water. Soft toys can easily be disinfected by putting them in the washer or hand-washing the surface with a soapy rag. Cleaning the toys and surfaces that a child touches can help prevent germs from spreading and will help prevent them from getting sick from other children.